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Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Picarel
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Spicara smaris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Spicara smaris (Picarel)
Spicara smaris
Picture by Patzner, R.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulan sejati > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sparidae (Porgies)
Etymology: Spicara: Latin, spicare = furnished with spike (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Issue
Placement in Sparidae from Centracanthidae from Santini et al. (2014:Ref. 95347). Suggestion already made in Garrido-Ramos et al. 1995; Hanel & Sturmbauer 2000; Summerer et al. 2001; Orrell et al. 2002; Orrell & Carpenter 2004; Chiba et al. 2009; Hanel & Tsigenopoulos 2011.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut; kisaran kedalaman 15 - 328 m (Ref. 56504).   Subtropical; 47°N - 20°N, 19°W - 42°E

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: entire Mediterranean, the Black Sea, southern Sea of Azov, and Atlantic coasts from Portugal to Morocco, including the Canary Islands and Madeira (Ref. 7349).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm 9.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 3397); common length : 14.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 3397)

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Depth range from 15-170 m but up to depth of 328 m in the eastern Ionian Sea (Ref. 56504). Inhabit Posidonia beds and muddy bottoms. Occur in schools except during breeding (Ref. 7081).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Spawns on detritic sandy bottoms, where the nests are excavated. A brightly colored male actively guards each nest, while females and some males swim above the area. At the end of the incubation period, the males lose their coloration, group into large schools and move to feeding places (Ref. 7081). Also Ref. 103751.

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator | mitra

Heemstra, P.C., 1990. Centracanthidae. p. 768-772. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7349)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  kurang bimbang (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 August 2009

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Harmless





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Ikan buruan: ya
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 17.8, mean 14.4 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5039   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.00 (2.97 - 3.03), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.0   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 2.5 (1.3 - 4.7) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 15 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sedang, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum 1.4 - 4.4 tahun (K=0.15-3.07(?); tmax=7).
Prior r = 0.42, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.63, Based on 5 stock assessments.
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Medium.