You can sponsor this page

Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Greenland shark
添加你自己的观测位置在 Fish Watcher
上传你的 图片 和 影像
Pictures | Videos |     Stamps, Coins Misc. | 谷歌图片

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鳃亚纲 (鲨鱼与 鱼) (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes (Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Somniosidae (Sleeper sharks)
Etymology: Somniosus: Latin, somnus = sleep (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 119696); 深度上下限 0 - 2992 m (Ref. 119696), usually 200 - 600 m (Ref. 35388).   深水域; -2°C - 17°C (Ref. 119696); 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 61°E

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Arctic and North Atlantic: Canadian Arctic at Resolute Bay to Baffin Bay, southward in western Atlantic to Cape Cod, eastward to Greenland, Iceland, Arctic Ocean off Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, and the Barents and White Seas southward in the eastern Atlantic to the Kattegat and west of Ireland; rare records known farther south as well as in the Arctic..
北大西洋與北極圈: 科德角與緬因灣,聖勞倫斯灣到 Ellesmere 島,格陵蘭,冰島, Spitzbergen ,白海與挪威到北海, 有時南至塞納河河口,法國與也許葡萄牙。 大西洋南方部與南極海: 南非, Kerguelen 與 Macquarie 島。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 244 - 427 cm
Max length : 427 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 247); 550.0 cm TL (female); 最大体重: 775.0 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年龄: 392 年 (Ref. 110949)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 0; 脊椎骨: 41 - 44. A gigantic, heavily-bodied dogfish shark with a moderately long, rounded snout and small, low dorsal fins; lower caudal lobe long; upper jaw with small single-cusped teeth and lower jaw with moderate-sized, bent-cusped, slicing teeth (Ref. 5578). Medium grey or brown in color, sometimes with transverse dark bands or small light spots (Ref. 5578).
一个巨人般又身体很重的狗鲨具有一个中等长度的, 圆形的吻与小又低的背鳍; 下尾部的叶长的; 上颌有小的单一尖牙而且下颌有被弯曲的中等大小的-尖头, 薄片的齿.(参考文献 5578) 中等的灰色或褐色颜色, 有时有横跨的深色条纹或小的淡色斑点.(参考文献 5578)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m (Ref. 247) and to as deep as 2,200 m (Ref. 55584). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, retreating to depths of 180-550 m when the temperature rises (Ref. 247). Reported to be found in temperatures from -1.8° to 17.2°C but commonly below 5°C at with salinity range of 29.4-35.5. It is capable of undertaking long migrations (Ref. 119696). Feeds on pelagic and bottom fishes (herring, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, capelin, redfish, sculpins, lumpfish, cod, haddock, Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut and skates (Ref. 5951)), sharks and skates (Ref. 5578), seals and small cetaceans, sea birds, squids, crabs, amphipods, marine snails, brittle stars, sea urchins, and jellyfish (Ref. 247, 58240). Radiocarbon dating of eye lens nuclei from 28 caught female Greenland sharks (81-502 cm TL) revealed a life span of at least 272 years, the oldest being nearly 400 years; age of sexual maturity is about 150 years. This large species is slow-growing (Ref. 110949). Petromyzon marinus was reported to have been attached to S. microcephalus (Ref. 58185). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Utilized fresh and dried for human and sled-dog food (flesh is said to be toxic when fresh); Eskimos also used the skin to make boots, and the sharp lower dental bands as knives for cutting hair (Ref. 247). A very sluggish shark (Ref. 28609). Reports in literature of lengths exceeding 640 cm TL (e.g. up to 730 cm TL in Ref. 247) remain unverified. Common length 244-427 cm TL (Ref. 119696).

栖息于大陆棚与岛屿棚了,而且上层斜坡向下至至少 1,200 公尺 (参考文献 247) 与对深达 2,200 公尺.(参考文献 55584) 在北极圈与北方生物带大西洋,它出现在潮间带中的沿海地区在比较寒冷的数个月期间在浅湾与河口中而在表面, 撤退到深度 180550 公尺的当温度上升的时候.(参考文献 247) 吃大洋性与底栖性的鱼,鲨鱼与魟鱼 (参考文献 5578) ,海豹与小的鲸类,海鸟,乌贼,螃蟹,片脚类动物,海蜗牛,海星,海胆与水母。 (参考文献 247) 卵胎生的.(参考文献 205)也生鮮利用而且乾燥以供人類與雪撬-狗的食物;(肉據說有毒的新鮮時) 愛斯基摩人也使用了皮膚做成靴子, 與銳利的下顎齒列當刀子用來剪頭髮.(參考文獻 247) 一隻非常緩動性的鯊魚.(參考文獻 28609)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).北大西洋與北極圈: 科德角與緬因灣,聖勞倫斯灣到 Ellesmere 島,格陵蘭,冰島, Spitzbergen ,白海與挪威到北海, 有時南至塞納河河口,法國與也許葡萄牙。 大西洋南方部與南極海: 南非, Kerguelen 與 Macquarie 島。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Yano, K., J.D. Stevens and L.J.V. Compagno, 2004. A review of the systematics of the sleeper shark genus Somniosus with redescriptions of Somniosus (Somniosus) antarcticus and Somniosus (Rhinoscymnus) longus (Squaliformes: Somniosidae). Ichthyol. Res. 51:360-373. (Ref. 50224)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  临近濒危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  有毒 (Ref. 4690)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

更多信息

俗名
同种异名
新陈代谢
捕食者
生态毒物学
繁殖
成熟度
产卵场
产卵群集
孕卵数

卵的发育
参考文献
养殖
养殖信息
品种
遗传学
基因序列
遗传率
疾病
加工
Mass conversion
合作者
照片
Stamps, Coins Misc.
声音
神经毒
速度
泳型
鳃区
Otoliths
脑重体重比
眼睛色素

工具

特别资料

下载 XML

网络资源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.6 - 9.3, mean 3.6 (based on 1058 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5313   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00301 - 0.00914), b=3.17 (3.02 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增时间超过14 年 (Fec=10; K=0.0075; assuming tm>10).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.