Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 2 - 1190 m (Ref. 40919). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and False Bay, South Africa to Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 53.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4404)
Adults occur on open soft-bottom and mud habitats from shallow bays to deep water. They are found in tube-like burrows in sand or mud bottoms (Ref. 9710). Very rarely encountered but more usually seen at night (Ref. 90102). Nocturnal feeders. Stomach of two specimens trawled in 50-54 m off western India contain crustaceans (including copepods), polychaete remains, forams, fish scales, and some sand and mud (Ref. 11441). Oviparous. Eggs are demersal and adhesive (Ref. 205), and are attached to the substrate via a filamentous, adhesive pad or pedestal (Ref. 94114). Larvae are planktonic, often found in shallow, coastal waters (Ref. 94114). Have eel-like bodies but are rarely seen swimming away from their burrow (Ref. 48636).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 8 - 19.8, mean 12.4 °C (based on 836 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00102 (0.00046 - 0.00225), b=3.06 (2.88 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=1-3 and Fec=100-1000).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100).