Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 90 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 30°N - 36°S, 24°E - 124°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa eastward through northern Australia to Hawaiian, Marquesas and Pitcairn islands, north to south Japan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4420)
Inhabit clear inner and outer reef habitats from exposed algae reef flats to deep along drop-offs (Ref. 48637). Occur in seaward reefs below the surge zone (Ref. 205). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Feed on crabs, bivalves, gastropods, algae, echinoids, tunicates, worms, eggs, and detritus. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Also taken by drive-in nets (Ref. 9770).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.5 - 28.8, mean 27.4 °C (based on 596 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01232 - 0.05364), b=2.93 (2.76 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 52.5 [22.6, 119.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.666 [0.346, 1.486] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.1 [16.0, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.121 [0.061, 0.238] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.9 [19.8, 81.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 54.3 [15.1, 197.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.24 [0.83, 1.83] mg/100g (wet weight);