Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ovalentaria/misc
(Various families in series Ovalentaria) > Pomacentridae
(Damselfishes) > Pomacentrinae
Etymology: Parma: Latin, parma, -ae = a little shield. More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 7247). Temperate; 29°S - 39°S, 144°E - 154°E
Southwest Pacific: southern Australia between Byron Bay, New South Wales and Port Phillip Bay, Victoria.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7247); max. reported age: 37 years (Ref. 52465)
Adults inhabit rocky reefs (Ref. 7247). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Also Ref. 103751.
Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 15.3 - 23.2, mean 18.2 °C (based on 45 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02188 (0.01053 - 0.04545), b=3.00 (2.83 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.24 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.2 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.34-0.37; tmax=37).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.2 [11.0, 43.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.272 [0.151, 0.469] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.5, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.323 [0.169, 0.631] g/100g ; Selenium = 6.48 [2.92, 16.52] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.6 [11.6, 226.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.839 [0.508, 1.359] mg/100g (wet weight);