Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 9342). Subtropical; 33°N - 23°N, 119°W - 106°W (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Central Pacific: southern La Jolla, California, USA to Mazatlan, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 198 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 91.0 kg (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 10 - 11. Distinguished by the following characteristics: uniform dark brown or grey color of adults (can rapidly change into juvenile pattern when disturbed or under stress), large adults with white pectoral fin margin and median fins with narrow white edge; juvenile with greyish brown color, with dark spots along upper half of the body; depth of body 3.1-3.4 times in SL; head length 2.5-2.7 times in SL; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, lacking distinct lobe at the angle; posterior nostrils not notably enlarged, diameter less than twice of anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).
Found in rocky reefs and kelp beds. Juveniles are unknown in California waters and the few large adults that have been taken there are probably expatriates from a more southerly breeding population. Large adults feed on fishes (Ref. 9342). Reported to prey on juvenile hammerhead sharks. Its large size makes it an object of game fishing (Ref. 9342).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.6 - 25.9, mean 23 °C (based on 102 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00429 - 0.02028), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 8.75 [4.91, 18.12] mg/100g; Iron = 0.397 [0.198, 0.722] mg/100g; Protein = 19.5 [17.7, 21.3] %; Omega3 = 0.163 [0.086, 0.304] g/100g; Selenium = 19.6 [7.2, 42.9] μg/100g; VitaminA = 50.7 [13.8, 195.3] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.454 [0.295, 0.715] mg/100g (wet weight);