Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 18 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 8°N - 6°N
Pacific Ocean: Palau (Ref. 1602), Australia, Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6993) and Norfolk Island (Ref. 8879).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 28618)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Adults become banded with a thin white bar in the middle of each band.
A burrowing species of inshore, soft bottom areas (Ref. 7300, 75154).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00089 (0.00039 - 0.00204), b=3.00 (2.80 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).