Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 50 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 33°N - 8°N, 89°W - 59°W
Western Atlantic: southern Florida, USA and Bahamas to northern South America. Also Caribbean, including Antilles (Ref. 26938).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Occurs in open water (Ref. 9710); sometimes found near the coast, mainly near oceanic islands (Ref. 5217). Sometimes found over coral heads (Ref. 9710). Feeds on zooplankton and small fishes. Marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Rocha, L.A., K.C. Lindeman, C.R. Rocha and H.A. Lessios, 2008. Historical biogeography and speciation in the reef fish genus Haemulon (Teleostei: Haemulidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 48:918-928. (Ref. 84214)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.9 - 28, mean 26.7 °C (based on 86 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 66.5 [26.7, 138.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.719 [0.358, 1.364] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.5, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.0892 [, ] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.4 [15.7, 65.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 143 [51, 420] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.36 [0.87, 2.12] mg/100g (wet weight);