Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 10 - 50 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Indo-Malayan region, eastward to Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, southward to the Great Barrier Reef.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48391)
Inhabit shallow reef crests and deep reefs adjacent to steep slopes. Form aggregations to feed in midwater well above the bottom; harems of 3-7 individuals. Feeds on plankton. Frequently exported through the aquarium trade (Ref. 48391).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.8 - 29, mean 28 °C (based on 618 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03236 (0.01523 - 0.06876), b=2.89 (2.71 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 55.8 [28.1, 86.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.615 [0.376, 1.011] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [17.1, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.108 [0.066, 0.175] g/100g ; Selenium = 28.4 [14.7, 54.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 127 [35, 434] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.15 [0.78, 1.65] mg/100g (wet weight);