Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 6 - 161 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 30°N - 15°N
Eastern Pacific: endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Have recently been reported from Midway Islands (Ref. 28620).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7247)
Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Collected from depths of 6 to 46 m. Sexual maturity at about 12.7 cm. Spawning period occur from February through May. Diet consists mainly of calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, but tunicates, mysids, euphausiids, crustacean larvae, larval polychaetes, siphonophores, and fish eggs are also taken (Ref. 7247). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 9 - 20.8, mean 14.6 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00571 - 0.02773), b=3.03 (2.84 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 78.7 [45.4, 127.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.773 [0.484, 1.222] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.4, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.17 [0.11, 0.26] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.3 [17.1, 57.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 203 [73, 563] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.54 [1.07, 2.13] mg/100g (wet weight);