Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 1602). Tropical; 28°N - 28°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Pitcairn Group, north to Japan, south to Lord Howe and Rapa islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5372)
Occur in lagoon and seaward reefs in areas with rich coral growth (Ref. 1602). Juveniles may be found in shallow Acropora thickets (Ref. 1602). Adults occur in pairs (Ref. 1602, 48636). Omnivorous. Feed on coral polyps (Ref. 37816). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). This species is extremely difficult to maintain in an aquarium and is very rarely imported.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Steene, R.C., 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia. vol. 1. 144 p. (Ref. 4859)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 2918 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02239 (0.01357 - 0.03695), b=2.98 (2.84 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 90 [48, 137] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.772 [0.467, 1.235] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [17.5, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.112 [0.071, 0.174] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.8 [18.4, 58.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47.5 [14.1, 155.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.39 [0.95, 1.98] mg/100g (wet weight);