Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range ? - 80 m (Ref. 55763), usually 30 - ? m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 32°N - 3°S, 115°W - 80°W (Ref. 5222)
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 39.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: body depth 2.7-2.9 in SL; head length 2.3-2.5 in SL; rounded preopercle, finely serrate; posterior and anterior nostril subequal; third dorsal spine, longest, membranes incised between anterior spines; pectoral fins longer than pelvic fins, pectoral fin length 1.5-1.7 in head length; caudal fin rounded; lateral body scales strongly ctenoid; lateral line scales 48-49; lateral scale series 80-83 (Ref. 089707)
Found in coral reefs; also along rocky shores (Ref. 5222). A shy and secretive species (Ref. 5222). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans; reaches at least 25 years; recently confirmed as a protogynous hermaphrodite, spawning peaks in July and August in the Gulf of California (Ref. 089707).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.9 - 26, mean 23.4 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00869 - 0.02637), b=3.07 (2.93 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4; k=0.19).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.7 [25.8, 74.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.523 [0.299, 0.967] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.6, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.167 [0.108, 0.262] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.7 [20.7, 60.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 186 [65, 595] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.803 [0.578, 1.278] mg/100g (wet weight);