Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Temperate; 35°N - 31°N
North America: Gila and Bill Williams River systems (in Colorado River drainage) in New Mexico and Arizona, USA, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Common but decreasing in southern half of range.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)
Inhabits rocky pools of creeks and small to medium rivers. Large individuals occur in rocky riffles and runs at night.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00501 (0.00208 - 0.01208), b=3.10 (2.89 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (52 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 41 [19, 68] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.45 [0.24, 0.80] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.3 [14.0, 19.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.809 [0.336, 1.839] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.7 [10.8, 69.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 18.7 [5.9, 59.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.784 [0.530, 1.194] mg/100g (wet weight);