Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 3 - 168 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 35°N - 34°S, 35°E - 113°W
Indo-Pacific: western Indian Ocean to the Austral Islands, north to southern Japan and Hawaii, south to Sydney, Australia. Eastern Central Pacific: Mexico and the Revillagigedo Islands (Ref. 9283).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 40.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3287); max. published weight: 6.6 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults are pelagic and are abundant around oceanic islands while not found in neritic areas (Ref. 9283, 58302). May be encountered in solitary, pairs or small schools. Schools frequent sandy river basins, sandy channels of lagoon and seaward reefs. Feed on small crustaceans in the sand (Ref. 9283). Marketed fresh and dried or salted (Ref. 9283).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.7 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 1736 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01312 - 0.02100), b=2.95 (2.92 - 2.98), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 23.6 [14.3, 51.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.17 [0.55, 2.38] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.2 [17.6, 22.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.181 [0.104, 0.324] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.1 [6.1, 25.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 78.6 [14.3, 432.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.533 [0.283, 1.149] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.