Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range ? - 300 m (Ref. 2683), usually 30 - 50 m (Ref. 27115). Subtropical; 16°C - 22°C (Ref. 27115); 43°N - 22°S, 35°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Mediterranean and Portugal to Angola, including the Azores. Range reported to extend south to northern Namibia (Ref. 27121).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Lives amongst rocks, gravel, coral (Ref. 2683) and in submarine caves on the continental shelf and upper slope. Nocturnal. Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes. Protogynous.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Protogyny is unconfirmed for this species (Ref. 103751).
Tortonese, E., 1986. Serranidae. p. 780-792. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. vol. 2. (Ref. 5506)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion