Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae
Etymology: Zeugopterus: Greek, zygon = yoke + Greek, pteron = wing, fin. More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal, usually 1 - 40 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 64°N - 43°N, 8°W - 14°E
North Atlantic: Trondheim to the Bay of Biscay (4703); including Newfoundland, Canada (Ref. 36223).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4703)
Dark coloration, marbled and with spots. Body oval, pelvic and anal fins used. Scales on the eyed side with fine spiny outgrowths, which are like rough fur to the touch (Ref. 35388).
Lives on stony or rocky ground in the algal zone, and feeds on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 4703). Spawns in March - June (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., 1986. Scophthalmidae. p. 1287-1293. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4703)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 8.7 - 12.5, mean 10.4 °C (based on 514 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7520 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00640 - 0.02477), b=3.04 (2.86 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 56.8 [28.7, 115.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.277 [0.151, 0.537] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.5, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.458 [0.244, 0.920] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.2 [6.7, 34.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.3 [4.3, 53.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.497 [0.293, 0.779] mg/100g (wet weight);