Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 1500 m (Ref. 26346). Temperate
Southwest Pacific: endemic to New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 59.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 118 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346); common length : 62.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9258); max. reported age: 9 years (Ref. 47618)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Brown dorsally, mottled with white and black spots, and a large dark blotch on each wing; white ventrally (Ref. 26346).
Inhabit the continental shelf and upper slope (Ref. 26346); usually in coastal waters (Ref. 9258). Found partially buried in sand (Ref. 26346). Feed on fish, shellfish, crabs, and worms (Ref. 26346). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 10.2-12.7 cm long and 6.3-8.3 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41308).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Young hatching at about 18-20 cm (Ref. 26346). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.4 - 12.6, mean 9.2 °C (based on 95 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 6.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 12.5 [1.5, 73.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.234 [0.042, 0.895] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.1 [12.5, 18.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.659 [0.291, 1.509] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.6 [4.1, 65.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.88 [1.39, 24.49] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.372 [0.097, 1.361] mg/100g (wet weight);