Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 18 - 113 m (Ref. 2850). Tropical
Eastern Central Pacific: Point Conception in California, USA to Peru; rare north of Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on sand bottom (Ref. 2850). Adults feed on small crustaceans and fish (Ref. 4525). Oviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36492). Eggs are presumably contained in floating rafts (Ref. 36492).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 16.2 - 26, mean 20.1 °C (based on 49 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.00925 - 0.05675), b=2.94 (2.72 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 3.7 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100).