Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Urotrygonidae
(American round stingrays)
Etymology: Urobatis: Greek,oura = tail + Greek, batis, batidos = a ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 91 m (Ref. 12951), usually 1 - 21 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 43°N - 7°N, 125°W - 79°W (Ref. 55315)
Eastern Pacific: northern California (USA) to Ecuador.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - 24 cm
Max length : 58.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 4699)
Occurs on sand, rubbly or mud bottom off beaches and in bays and sloughs; near seagrasses, usually shallower than 15 m. Adult females profuce 2 litters of up to 6 pups per year (Ref. 2850, 114953), sometimes around rocky reefs (Ref. 12951). Feeds on benthic invertebrates and small fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male grasps disc margin of female, flips under her, and inserts a clasper. Mating lasts about 5 minutes.
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.2 - 28.5, mean 23.6 °C (based on 60 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.01103 - 0.04759), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.15).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.4 [3.5, 165.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.776 [0.151, 3.247] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.2 [17.8, 22.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.085, 0.676] g/100g ; Selenium = 18.7 [5.2, 71.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 17.2 [3.6, 83.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.699 [0.179, 2.614] mg/100g (wet weight);