Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 41 m (Ref. 13227), usually 2 - 32 m (Ref. 13227). Tropical
Pacific Ocean: Viet Nam, Philippines, Palau and Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and Solomon Islands, Fiji, Tonga, east to American Samoa and Rapa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 4.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13227)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Adults inhabit lagoons and seaward reefs (Ref. 90102). They are found in caves, crevices and on flat surfaces of coral, sponges or rubble with algae (Ref. 48636). Some live on live corals (Ref. 94101). Eggs are hemispherical and covered with numerous sticky threads that anchor them in the algae on the nesting sites (Ref. 240). Larvae are planktonic which occur primarily in shallow, nearshore waters (Ref. 94114).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Fricke, R., 1994. Tripterygiid fishes of Australia, New Zealand and the southwest Pacific Ocean (Teleostei). Theses Zool. 24:1-585. (Ref. 13227)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.2 - 28.9, mean 27.7 °C (based on 708 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00562 (0.00253 - 0.01250), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 341 [153, 924] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.73 [0.76, 3.44] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.8, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.112 [0.041, 0.312] g/100g ; Selenium = 53.2 [15.7, 161.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 57.5 [12.1, 262.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 3.68 [1.97, 6.15] mg/100g (wet weight);