Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rhinopristiformes
(Shovelnose rays) > Trygonorrhinidae
(Banjo rays, Fiddler rays)
Etymology: Trygonorrhina: Greek, trygon = a sting ray + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 5 - 205 m (Ref. 114953). Subtropical; 31°S - 41°S, 114°E - 148°E (Ref. 114953)
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to southern Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 94.6  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 146 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This large shovelnose ray is distinguished by the following characters: suboval disc, short and broadly rounded snout with nostrils partly covered with a large nasal curtain; ridges of small thorns present on mid-line of disc and shoulders; behind interorbital space is an ornate pattern of dark-edged bands without the distinct triangular or diamond-shaped marking (Ref. 114953).
A benthic species that occurs on continental shelf, mainly found on soft bottoms and seagrasses. Feeds on bottom crustaceans, worms, molluscs and small fishes. Produces litters of 2-5 pups. Maturity size of males at ca. 70 cm TL, females at 89 cm TL; birth size at 21-25 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 2009. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 656 p. (Ref. 109431)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
CountriesFAO areasEcosystemsOccurrencesIntroductionsStocksEcologyDietFood itemsFood consumptionRation
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00297 - 0.01403), b=2.98 (2.78 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 19.7 [4.0, 90.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.678 [0.174, 1.975] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.3, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.225 [0.101, 0.486] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.6 [9.1, 86.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 6.08 [2.13, 16.80] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.499 [0.251, 0.904] mg/100g (wet weight);