Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Torpediniformes
(Electric rays) > Torpedinidae
Etymology: Torpedo: Latin, torpere = be sluggish (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 229 m (Ref. 58018). Subtropical; 26°N - 17°N, 83°W - 76°W (Ref. 114953)
Western Central Atlantic: along the western edge of the Great Bahama Bank, Florida Straits and off Nicaragua.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Found inshore to 10 m depth in coral-reef habitats (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Smallest specimens at ca. 15 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 1998. Catalog of fishes. Special Publication, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 3 vols. 2905 p. (Ref. 26282)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00844 - 0.03578), b=2.91 (2.72 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .