Thryssa vitrirostris, Orangemouth anchovy : fisheries, bait

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Thryssa vitrirostris (Gilchrist & Thompson, 1908)

Orangemouth anchovy
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Thryssa vitrirostris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Thryssa vitrirostris (Orangemouth anchovy)
Thryssa vitrirostris
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei (teleosts) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Coiliinae
Etymology: Thryssa: Greek, thrissa, -es = shad (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Gilchrist & Thompson.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 31°N - 40°S, 20°W - 88°E (Ref. 189)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indian Ocean: Madagascar; coasts of Africa from Port Alfred northward to the Persian Gulf, but not in the Red Sea; coasts of Pakistan and India, perhaps to Calcutta and off Myanmar, but no records (Ref. 28, 189). Also from lower Zambezi delta in Mozambique (Ref. 39494).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5430)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-14; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 34 - 44; Vertebrae: 43 - 45. Diagnosis: Body compressed, belly with 16-19 pre-pelvic and 8-12 post-pelvic scutes, a total of 24-30 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus; maxilla long, reaching beyond base of first pectoral finray; first supra-maxilla a minute oval; lower gillrakers 18-24, the serrae on the inner edge in distinct clumps in larger fishes; anal fin with 3-4 unbranched rays and 31-40 branched rays; a dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening; inside of gill cavity bright orange (Ref. 189). This species overlaps the range of different other species of Thryssa, of which five have a similar maxilla, very small first supra-maxilla and overlapping gillraker counts; however of these five species, T. gautamiensis, T. malabarica, T. purava and T. whiteheadi all have the tip of the snout at or above the level of the centre of the eye, and the last two, plus T. stenosoma, have at least 38 branched anal finrays (Ref. 189).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A coastal, pelagic species (Ref. 28, 68964), apparently common along shore and in estuaries (Ref. 5430). Presumably schooling, occurring inshore and entering estuaries and lagoons, perhaps used as nursery areas, but moving further out in rainy seasons when coastal waters are freshened up by rivers (Ref. 189). It feeds on plankton organisms (Ref. 28). May be caught using ringnets (Ref. 5213). Generally marketed fresh, may be salted or dried (Ref. 5284).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 09 March 2020


Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Spawning aggregation
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

AFORO (otoliths) | Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes: genus, species | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | FAO - Publication: search | Faunafri | Fishipedia | Fishtrace | GenBank: genome, nucleotide | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Socotra Atlas | Tree of Life | Wikipedia: Go, Search | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 27.4 °C (based on 294 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00362 - 0.01050), b=3.13 (2.99 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.5).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (24 of 100).
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.