Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 25°N - 5°N, 71°E - 94°E (Ref. 189)
Indian Ocean: eastern coasts of India; possibly also Myanmar.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
soft rays: 38 - 44. Belly with 26 or 27 keeled scutes from isthmus to anus. Tip of snout a little above level of eye center. Maxilla moderate, projecting at most to halfway to pectoral fin base; first supra-maxilla small; angle of mouth rather oblique, teeth of lower jaw slightly enlarged. An indistinct dark blotch behind upper part of gill opening and a faint dark line along back.
Presumably schooling, occurring mostly inshore and entering estuaries and also Lake Chilka in India, thus able to tolerate lowered salinities. More data needed based on correct identifications. If this is the species being referred to in Ref. 6841, then the young feeds on surface plankton, chiefly on prawn larvae, but also small fishes (e.g. Stolephorus) and cypris. Apparently common.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 27.5 - 28.6, mean 27.9 °C (based on 54 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00331 (0.00176 - 0.00623), b=3.09 (2.93 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).