Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range ? - 530 m (Ref. 114953). Tropical; 45°N - 4°N, 98°W - 51°W (Ref. 114953)
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri
Northwest Atlantic: mainly eastern USA, rarely south to Venezuela.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 154 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953); max. published weight: 60.0 kg (Ref. 114953)
Life history unknown. Males reaches maturity at 75-85 cm TL, females at 125-135 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R., W.T. White, M.R. de Carvalho, B. Séret, M.F.W. Stehmann and G.J.P. Naylor, 2016. Rays of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Comstock Publishing Associates. i-ix + 1-790. (Ref. 114953)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00909 - 0.03994), b=2.88 (2.69 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) .