Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 90 - 750 m (Ref. 9917). Deep-water
Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia, from Port Headland to Tasmania and off the Swain Reefs in Queensland. Torpedo macneilli is similar and probably synonymous with Torpedo fairchildi from New Zealand (Ref. 12951).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 60 - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9917)
An offshore species found on continental shelves and slopes (Ref. 9917, 75154). Found near rocky reefs, over sand and mud bottoms (Ref. 12951). Feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Capable of severely shocking people if handled (Ref. 9917).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V. and P.R. Last, 1999. Torpedinidae. Torpedos. p. 1449-1451. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9917)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10.4 - 20.6, mean 14.1 °C (based on 128 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00909 - 0.03994), b=2.88 (2.69 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (70 of 100) .