Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 5 - 1153 m (Ref. 26346). Deep-water
Southwest Pacific: endemic to New Zealand. Specimens recently seen at Norfolk Island may be this species. Torpedo macneilli from Australia is very similar to this species (Ref. 6871).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Dark grey dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 26346).
Found on the continental shelf and upper slope (Ref. 26346). Feeds on fish, probably at night (Ref. 26346). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Cox, G. and M. Francis, 1997. Sharks and rays of New Zealand. Canterbury Univ. Press, Univ. of Canterbury. 68 p. (Ref. 26346)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.5 - 14.1, mean 12 °C (based on 33 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00909 - 0.03994), b=2.88 (2.69 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100) .