Teleostei (teleosts) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 18 m (Ref. 126547), usually 1 - 2 m (Ref. 126547). Temperate; 61°N - 43°N, 11°W - 13°E
Northeast Atlantic: Bergen, Norway and southern portions British Isles to Bay of Biscay.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 10.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 106276)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Snout cylindrical. Pectoral and caudal fins present. With 13-15 bony plates between head and dorsal fin (Ref. 35388). Caudal fin somewhat angulous, diamond shaped (Ref. 59043).
Coastal and estuarine waters (Ref. 126547); often found on sandy shores among floating or attached seaweeds (Ref. 6733). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Spawns in summer. Young are sometimes caught pelagically in the North Sea (Ref. 35388).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 9.4 - 12.5, mean 10.7 °C (based on 317 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00023 (0.00013 - 0.00042), b=3.25 (3.10 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.75).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100).