Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 18 - 55 m (Ref. 126547), usually ? - 5 m (Ref. 126547). Subtropical; 40°N - 8°N
Western Atlantic: disjunct distribution from Bermuda and Chesapeake Bay (USA), including the northern Gulf of Mexico, the Bahamas, and the western Caribbean Sea (Ref. 37039), to Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27549)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 26-35. Preorbital bone appears as broad plate in front of eye (Ref. 26938).
Abundant in seagrass beds along coasts. Northern populations move offshore during colder months (Ref. 26938). Found mostly at 5 m or less (Ref. 126547). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Feeds mostly on small grass shrimp and other small crustaceans (Ref. 93252).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205, 53335).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.5 - 28.2, mean 27.1 °C (based on 614 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00028 (0.00012 - 0.00063), b=3.21 (3.03 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100).