Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - 75 m (Ref. 5217), usually - 10 m (Ref. 26268). Tropical; 0°C - ; 25°N - 30°S, 87°W - 30°W (Ref. 26268)
Western Atlantic: Puerto Rico, Cuba and Hispaniola but unknown from the Bahamas. Continental margin of Central America (Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) to South America (Colombia, Guyana, suriname, Tobago and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 35237); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 51.30 g (Ref. 118626)
A shallow water species (1-51 m) (Ref. 26268), found over mud or sand bottoms (Ref. 5217) where it feeds on small benthic invertebrates likes annelids and crustaceans. Normally found along sand banks near the mouth of rivers (Ref. 35237).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A., 1998. Systematics and ecology of tonguefishes of the genus Symphurus (Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes) from the western Atlantic Ocean. Fish. Bull. 96(1):1-182. (Ref. 26268)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.8 - 28.1, mean 27.5 °C (based on 680 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00647 - 0.03228), b=3.05 (2.85 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 254 [124, 512] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.21 [0.70, 2.19] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.9 [14.8, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.34 [0.15, 0.76] g/100g ; Selenium = 53.5 [24.3, 131.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.4 [4.2, 53.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.41 [0.92, 2.08] mg/100g (wet weight);