Teleostei (teleosts) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Labridae
Etymology: Symphodus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Risso.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 4742). Subtropical; 48°N - 30°N, 10°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Gulf of Gascogne to Gibraltar including the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 6.0, range 5 - 7 cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4742); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 4742)
Adults are found near rocks, mainly in eel-grass beds (Ref. 4742). Mainly solitary (Ref. 4742). Nest of seaweed built by male (Ref. 4742). Feed on mollusks, bivalves, gastropods, shrimps, sea-urchins and hydroids (Ref. 4742). Males grow faster than females (Ref. 4742). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Each male builds a nest of seaweed for one or two females to spawn in (Ref. 4742).
Quignard, J.-P. and A. Pras, 1986. Labridae. p. 919-942. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4742)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 15.2 - 21, mean 18.7 °C (based on 584 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00612 - 0.01792), b=3.02 (2.87 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20-0.62; tm=1; tmax=8).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 45.7 [19.7, 108.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.634 [0.334, 1.285] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [16.5, 21.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.25 [0.14, 0.45] g/100g ; Selenium = 10.2 [4.5, 20.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 95.9 [24.4, 445.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.31 [0.80, 2.35] mg/100g (wet weight);