Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Myctophiformes
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophidae
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophinae
Etymology: Symbolophorus: Greek, symbolon, ou = mark, signal + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 800 m (Ref. 4479). Deep-water; 55°N - 26°S, 82°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: Iceland (strays) and British Isles to Western Sahara including the Mediterranean. Western Atlantic: Nunavut and USA to Brazil in slope water region.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 9 - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
High-oceanic species found at 550-700 m during the day and nyctoepipelagic at the surface and down to 800 m (maximum abundance at the surface) (Ref. 4479). Epipelagic to bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Size stratification with depth at night, with small sub-adults deeper than large sub-adults and adults (Ref. 4775). Feeds on crustaceans (Ref. 58426).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.8 - 16, mean 13.2 °C (based on 303 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00933 (0.00396 - 0.02200), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.38 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .