Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Myctophiformes
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophidae
(Lanternfishes) > Myctophinae
Etymology: Symbolophorus: Greek, symbolon, ou = mark, signal + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335). More on author: Richardson.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 500 m (Ref. 27121). Deep-water; 47°S - 51°S
Eastern Atlantic: isolated specimens taken as far north as 25°S in the Benguela Upwelling Region. Western Atlantic: south of the Subtropical Convergence; two records 50°40'S, 50°01'W; 47°50.6'S, 40°00.8'W. Western Pacific: Australia (Ref. 7300) and New Zealand. Eastern Pacific: off Chile.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 16.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36731)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Oceanic over the outer edge of the continental shelf and upper regions of the slope (Ref. 27121). Nyctoepipelagic at the surface (Ref. 4479).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 6.4 - 8, mean 6.9 °C (based on 17 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.52 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .