Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9790). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Marshall Islands and Fiji (Ref. 2334). Northwards to Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands, including Mariana, Marshall, and Caroline islands (Ref. 1602, 37816).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 37.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 11 - 13. Lips smooth, lacking papillae on edges. Least interorbital width going 3.5 times or less in greatest diameter of orbit. Base of lower opercular spine concealed by scales. Anterior 1-3, usually 2, lateral line scales bearing a small spine. Iris lappet bearing short branches with bifurcate tips.
Taken over sand associated with rocks and coral reefs to about 30 m (Ref. 9790). Buries itself partially in the sand for camouflage. Feeds mainly on crabs and prawns, also on fishes. Also found in sandy fringe of coral reefs (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.1 °C (based on 2283 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00240 - 0.01095), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 54.8 [27.6, 146.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.621 [0.286, 1.425] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [15.8, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.127 [0.057, 0.356] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.2 [17.2, 89.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 82.4 [30.0, 212.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.18 [0.76, 1.80] mg/100g (wet weight);