Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 15 - 256 m (Ref. 54902). Temperate; 18°S - 41°S, 113°E - 150°E (Ref. 54902)
Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia (including New South Wales).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 152 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 0. Numerous dark spots on lower lobe of caudal fin (Ref. 31369). Pectoral fins greatly enlarged, with broad triangular lobe extending forward from their bases on either side of the gill slits; pelvic fins enlarged and wing-like; caudal very short, nearly symmetrical but not lunate, its lower lobe slightly longer than the upper (Ref. 31369).
A common but little-known angelshark found on the continental shelf and uppermost slope, on or near the bottom (Ref. 247, 75154). Occurs from close inshore to 130 m depth (Ref. 31369, 6871). Feeds mainly on small fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6871). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). Flesh is highly esteemed (Ref. 6871).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 20.4, mean 16 °C (based on 129 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00280 - 0.01965), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .