Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335). More on author: Regan.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 494 m (Ref. 5578), usually 60 - 300 m (Ref. 5578). Subtropical; 4°S - 32°S
Western Indian Ocean: tropical and warm temperate waters from Tanzania to the eastern Cape coast of South Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 90 - 93 cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 247); 108.0 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Found on the continental shelf and uppermost slope, from the surf line close inshore to 494 m depth (Ref. 247). Feeds on bony fish, squid and octopus (Ref. 247). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), with about 7 to 11 young in a litter (Ref. 247). Sometimes caught by surf anglers (Ref. 6588).
Ovoviviparous, with about 7 to 11 young in a litter. Size at birth between 28 and 34 cm. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 24.8, mean 18.2 °C (based on 68 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00243 - 0.01188), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .