Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic. Tropical
Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania (Ref. 5377) to Angola (Ref. 3166). Reported from Brazil (Ref. 53435).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 133 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4442)
Found in- and offshore areas (Ref. 106604). Usually small, although it attains a maximum length of 200 cm. Lives in groups and swims either close to the bottom or at the surface. The cephalic horns serve as a funnel to bring food near the mouth. Its behavior is rather sluggish at the surface; however, they can swim rapidly and make impressive leaps out of the water. They are actually inoffensive when they are not disturbed or are not wounded. Feeds on small fish and plankton (Ref. 5377). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 4442).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Mobulidae. p. 73-76. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4442)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.64 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100).