Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal, usually 280 - 450 m (Ref. 27121). Deep-water
Southeast Atlantic: east and west coasts of South Africa. Reported from Namibia (Ref. 27121). Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique (Ref. 5213).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5320)
Occurs in deep outer shelf and upper slope waters (Ref. 5320).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sulak, K.J., 1986. Clorophthalmidae. p. 261-265. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 5320)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 7.6 - 13.8, mean 10.2 °C (based on 38 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00347 (0.00150 - 0.00799), b=3.12 (2.92 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).