Teleostei > Gadiformes
(Cods) 鱈形目 (Cods)
(Cods and haddocks) 鱈科 (Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Gadus: Latin, gadus = a fish, cod? (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
海洋; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 600 m (Ref. 1371), usually 150 - 200 m (Ref. 54441). 溫帶; 0°C - 15°C; 83°N - 35°N, 76°W - 86°E (Ref. 1371)
North Atlantic and Arctic: Ungava Bay in Canada along the North American coast to Cape Hatteras; North Carolina in the western Atlantic. East and west coast of Greenland; around Iceland; from Barents Sea including the region around Bear Island along the European coast to Bay of Biscay (Ref. 88171).
到東北大西洋的西北: 到 Ungava 海灣的岬 Hatteras 沿著北美海岸; 東方與格陵蘭的西岸; 冰島的周圍; 歐洲從比斯開灣到巴倫支海的海岸, 包括區域在有島周圍。
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm 65.4, range 31 - 74 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 100.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 1371); 最大體重: 96.0 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大年齡: 25 年 (Ref. 173)
背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 44-55; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 33 - 45; 脊椎骨: 51 - 55. Protruding upper jaw, a conspicuous barbel on the lower jaw, and light lateral line, curved above the pectoral fins. Predorsal distance is less than one third of total length; body depth about 1/5 of total length. Color varies from brownish to greenish or gray dorsally and on upper sides, becoming pale and silvery ventrally. Peritoneum silvery.
光側線,在胸鰭上面彎曲了。 前背的距離少於 TL 的 1/3 。 顏色改變從褐色的到呈綠色或灰色的背面與在上側面上, 變成腹側灰白。 腹膜銀色的。
Widely distributed in a variety of habitats, from the shoreline down to the continental shelf. Juveniles prefer shallow (less than 10-30 m depth) sublittoral waters with complex habitats, such as seagrass beds, areas with gravel, rocks, or boulder, which provide protection from predators (Refs. 89383, 89384). Adults are usually found in deeper, colder waters. During the day, form schools and swim about 30-80 m above the bottom, dispersing at night to feed (Ref. 1371, 89385). Omnivorous; feed at dawn or dusk on invertebrates and fish, including young cod. (Ref. 1371). Migrate between spawning, feeding and overwintering areas, mostly within the boundaries of the respective stocks. Migrations >200 km are rare occurrences (Refs. 89386, 89387). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
淺海底棲-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 這種是廣泛分佈於多種棲息地, 從海岸線向下至大陸棚。 鱈魚形成魚群在白天期間。 鱈魚是雜食性的; 他們在破曉或薄暮在無脊椎動物與魚上吃,包括幼魚鱈魚。 鱈魚每年一次產卵, 成批.(參考文獻 51846) 他們是生鮮銷售﹐乾燥或鹽醃,煙燻而且凍結; 他們被清蒸,油炸,火烤, 煮沸, 微波而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 最重要的分枝在巴倫支海與冰島的分枝中是挪威的北極分枝。 族群格陵蘭與紐芬蘭的周圍已經戲劇性地消退。 (參考文獻 35388) 在線粒體細胞色素 b 基因的 307 基底對區域的超過 12 核甘替換區別來自 格陵蘭鱈〔Gadus ogac〕 的這種。 (參考文獻 40214)
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | 卵 | 孕卵數 | 仔魚
Spawning occurs in winter and beginning of spring, where big schools are formed. Spawning sites are in offshore waters, at or near the bottom, in 50-200 m depth and 0-12 °C (preferred range 0-6°C) (Refs. 1371, 89387). May form spawning aggregations in the water column when bottom temperatures are unsuitable (Ref. 1371). Different spawning areas may be used in subsequent years (Ref. 89387). Embryo development lasts about 14 days (at 6°C) and larval phase lasts about 3 months(at 8°C). Fecundity ranges from 2.5 million eggs in a 5 kg female to a record of 9 million eggs in a 34 kg female. Reported number of batches spawned in an experiment is 8 - 22 (Ref. 5513). Sex ratio is nearly 50%, with slight predominance of females. Classified as a determinate multiple spawner (Ref. 40290). Older and larger cod had been found to produce larger eggs with neutral buoyancy at lower salinities. This can be crucial to egg and larval survival (Refs. 31930, 38384). Larvae are pelagic up to 2.5 months before settling on the bottom (Ref. 1371).
In the Baltic, spawning cumulates in March at depths below 20 m near the bottom. The nursery areas are in the inner coastal zone. Recruitment to the fished stock starts below 2 years and peaks at about 3 years of age (Ref. 5947).到東北大西洋的西北: 到 Ungava 海灣的岬 Hatteras 沿著北美海岸; 東方與格陵蘭的西岸; 冰島的周圍; 歐洲從比斯開灣到巴倫支海的海岸, 包括區域在有島周圍。
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 0.5 - 10.3, mean 6.6 °C (based on 769 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00604 - 0.00756), b=3.08 (3.05 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
營養階層 (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 7.7 (7.1 - 9.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 57 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179
): 中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (rm=0.2-1.1; also (Ref. 36717
Prior r = 0.52, 95% CL = 0.34 - 0.78, Based on 48 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 9.58 [5.33, 15.04] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.125 [0.070, 0.223] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.5 [16.2, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.533 [0.234, 1.174] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.4 [7.3, 33.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.7 [2.4, 46.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.422 [0.309, 0.573] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.