Europe and Asia: In Europe, north of the Alps, from Meuse eastward to Neva drainages and Lake Ladoga; northern Black Sea basin from Danube eastward to Kuban, absent on the southern section; Caspian basin in Volga and Ural drainages. Not native to Great Britain, Scandinavia, Apennine and Iberian peninsulas, Crimea, and Adriatic, Aegean and White Sea basins. Locally introduced in Rhône drainage (France) and perhaps elsewhere (Ref. 59043).
In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna) (Ref. 1441). 歐洲與亞洲: 法國到俄國。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群).
Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm Max length : 30.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556); 30.7 cm TL (female); common length : 15.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 556)
背棘 (總數): 3; 背的軟條 (總數): 5-6; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 11; 脊椎骨: 49 - 50. Broad midlateral stripe from eye to caudal base and narrow stripe from opercle at least to pelvic origin. Lamina circularis absent in males (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 14-16 rays (Ref. 40476). 尾鰭有 14-16個鰭條。 (參考文獻 40476)
Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Found in lower reaches of slow-flowing rivers, but can also be found in still pools (Ref. 9696), on sandy bottoms of ponds, pools and ditches. Adults are nocturnal which burrow into mud during dry periods and strong frosts. Usually, burrows are 20-30 cm deep, occasionally down to 70 cm during dry periods (Ref. 59043). During the day, they stay buried in the sand. Feed on insect larvae and small mollusks. Seldom captured with hook and line (Ref. 30578). Are sensitive to pollutants which accumulate in the sediment (Ref. 11941). Facultative air-breathers (Ref. 27368). A female specimen measuring 30.7 cm TL was recorded from Netherlands (Ref. 114650).