Classification / Names
Nomi Comuni | Sinonimi | Catalog of Fishes(Genere, Specie) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
marino; salmastro; distribuzione batimetrica 1 - ? m (Ref. 6390). Temperate; 26°S - 39°S, 112°E - 150°E
Eastern Indian Ocean: endemic to the southern coasts of Australia.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 41.0 cm FL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 27296); peso massimo pubblicato: 800.00 g (Ref. 27296); Età massima riportata: 7 anni (Ref. 27652)
Spine dorsali (totale): 9; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 16; Spine anali 3; Raggi anali molli: 10; Vertebre: 25. Large eyes, diameter of which about one fifth of the head length. Body scales are slightly rough to touch. Body coloration: green above and silvery below with vertical rows of golden spots on the upper sides, tips of the caudal fin are black. Juveniles have dark golden bars on their sides (Ref. 6390). Length of upper lobe of caudal fin < 29.9% SL (Ref. 9701).
Usually found inshore in bays and estuaries over seagrass beds or near areas of seaweed (e.g. kelp), on rocky reefs, and along ocean beaches. Juveniles are found in inshore coastal waters, bays and inlets (Ref. 6390). Feed on small fish and prawns (Ref. 27946).
Both small, undeveloped ova (eggs) and larger ripe ova are present in the ovary at the same time. This phenomenon suggests that these species are either partial spawners (i.e. only some of the ova are spawned each time) or that the small ova remain in the ovary after spawning and are resorbed (Ref. 27945).
Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993. Australian fisheries resources. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, Australia. 422 p. (Ref. 6390)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Pesca: commerciale; Pesce da pesca sportiva: si
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
CollaboratoriImmaginiStamps, Coins Misc.SuoniCiguateraVelocitàModalità di nuotoArea branchialeOtolithsCervelliVista
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 15.2 - 20.5, mean 17.4 °C (based on 92 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00352 - 0.02589), b=3.01 (2.79 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.76 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 1.3 (1.1 - 1.9) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 10 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.8-1; tm=2-4; tmax=7; Fec=190,000).
Prior r = 0.70, 95% CL = 0.46 - 1.05, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): Very high vulnerability (94 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.3 [28.8, 99.0] mg/100g; Iron = 0.573 [0.349, 1.000] mg/100g; Protein = 20.2 [17.9, 22.3] %; Omega3 = 0.781 [0.419, 1.487] g/100g; Selenium = 9.68 [3.97, 21.32] μg/100g; VitaminA = 15.4 [4.8, 55.3] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.587 [0.409, 0.855] mg/100g (wet weight);