Anguilla anguilla, European eel : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish

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Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758)

European eel
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Anguilla anguilla   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Anguilla anguilla
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes(, ) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Teleostei > Anguilliformes (Eels and morays) 鰻目 (Eels and morays) > Anguillidae (Freshwater eels) 鰻鱺科(Freshwater eels) (Freshwater eels)
Etymology: Anguilla: Latin, anguilla, .-ae = eel (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 降海洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 700 m (Ref. 54218). 溫帶; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059); 75°N - 8°N, 82°W - 50°E (Ref. 42249)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: Atlantic coast from Scandinavia to Morocco; Baltic, Black and Mediterranean Seas; rivers of North Atlantic, Baltic and Mediterranean seas (Ref. 172, Ref. 51442). Continuous introductions to Asia and South and Central America. Spawning area in western Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Recent genomic DNA studies show that the European eel exhibits isolation by distance, implying that non-random mating and restricted gene flow among eels from different location exists (Ref. 43723). The existence of 3 genetically distinct sub-populations is suggested: a Northern European subpopulation (consisting mainly of the Icelandic stocks); a Western European subpopulation (including the Baltic, the Mediterranean and Black Sea); a Southern sub-population (including stocks of Morocco) (Ref. 43723, 89139).
大西洋: 來自斯堪的那維亞半島到摩洛哥與北大西洋,波羅的海與地中海的河的大西洋的海岸.(參考文獻 172, 參考文獻 51442) 對亞洲與南方與中美洲的連續介紹, 但是不再製造。 在大西洋西部 (藻海 ) 中產卵區域。 也分佈沿著歐洲從黑海到白海的海岸。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。 最近的染色體基因組研究顯示歐洲的鰻魚展現距離的隔離, 暗示那個非隨機交配與來自不同的地點的在鰻魚之中的被限制的基因流動存在.(參考文獻 43723)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 55.0, range 45 - 65 cm
Max length : 122 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 88166); 133.0 cm TL (female); common length : 35.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 6125); common length :50 cm TL (female); 最大体重: 6.6 kg (Ref. 39903); 最大体重: 6.6 kg; 最大年龄: 23 年 (Ref. 106807)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 臀棘 0; 脊椎骨: 110 - 120. Elongated, anguilliform body (Ref. 51442), cylindrical anteriorly, somewhat compressed posteriorly (Ref. 6125). Lower jaw slightly longer and projecting (Ref. 6125, Ref. 51442). Gill openings small and vertical, restricted to the sides (Ref. 6125). Elongated dorsal and anal fins, confluent with caudal fin (Ref. 6125, Ref. 51442), forming one unique fin from the anus to the middle of the back with minimum 500 soft rays (Ref. 40476). Dorsal fin origin far behind pectoral fins; anal fin origin slightly behind anus, well back from origin of dorsal fin (Ref. 6125). Pelvic fins absent (Ref. 2196, Ref. 51442). Greenbrown colored (Ref. 51442).
延长的, 鳗鱼状的身体 (参考文献 51442), 前部圆柱状, 后面略微侧扁.(参考文献 6125) 下颌些微比较长与突出的.(参考文献 6125, 参考文献 51442) 鳃裂小而垂直的, 局限于侧边.(参考文献 6125) 延长的背鳍与臀鳍, 与尾鳍汇和鳍 (参考文献 6125,参考文献 51442), 形成一个独特的鳍从肛门到背部中央最少有 500个软鳍条。 (参考文献 40476) 背鳍起点在胸鳍后方远处; 臀鳍起源些微地在肛门后面, 涌出来自背鳍起点的背面.(参考文献 6125) 腹鳍不存在。 (参考文献 2196, 参考文献 51442) 绿褐色的.(参考文献 51442)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Facultative air-breathing (Ref. 126274); Inhabits all types of benthic habitats from streams to shores of large rivers and lakes. Naturally found only in water bodies connected to the sea (Ref. 59043). Territorial and solitary species; 'schools' of young eels which are observed from time to time are a mass response to outward conditions and not of active assembling (Ref. 172). Amphihaline (Ref. 51442). Migrates to the depths of the Sargasso Sea to spawn (Ref. 172, 51442). Eel larvae (leptocephali) are transparent ribbon-like. They are brought to the coasts of Europe by the Gulf Stream in 7 to 11 months time (Ref. 51442) and can last for up to 3 years (Ref. 8994). They are transformed into glass eels (6-8 cm length, cylindrical in shape and transparent to slightly pigmented in colour). They enter the estuaries and colonize rivers and lakes (Ref. 11941, 51442); some individuals remain in estuaries and coastal waters to grow into adults (Ref. 88171). The glass eel stage is followed by a long feeding period (from the yellow to the silver eel stage) lasting 6-12 years in males (Ref. 6125) and 9-20 years in females (Ref. 6125). Yellow and silver eels are benthic, found under stones, buried in the mud or in crevices (Ref. 89138). Yellow eels eventually lose their pigmentation, becoming dark dorsally and silver ventrally (called silver eels). Silver eels are also characterized by a clear contrasting black lateral line and enlarged eyes (Ref. 6125). At the end of their growth period, they become sexually mature, migrate to the sea and cover great distances during their spawning migration (5,000-6,000 km); with extensive daily vertical migrations between 200 m at night and 600 m during day time, possibly for predator avoidance (Ref. 89140). Gametogenesis occurs entirely during spawning migration. Average life span is usually 15-20 years (Ref. 88171). Male eels can grow up to 50 cm TL (Ref. 39903). Occurs at temperatures ranging from 0-30°C (Ref. 172). Its food includes virtually the whole aquatic fauna (freshwater as well as marine) occurring in the eel's area, augmented with animals living out of water, e.g. worms (Ref. 172). Best temperature for making eels sexually mature is 20-25°C (Ref. 35388). Sensitive to weak magnetic fields (Ref. 89141, 89142). Their high fat content and benthic feeding habits in continental waters make them vulnerable to the bioaccumulation of pollutants, such as heavy metals and organic contaminants, that may result in organ damage and impaired migration capability (Ref. 82710) and lowered genetic variability (Ref. 82711). Review of information supports the view that the European eel population as a whole has declined in most areas, the stock is outside safe biological limits and current fisheries not sustainable (Ref. 82712). Obvious decreasing of the stocks for all the continental native distribution area (Ref. 40476). Utilized fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; can be fried, boiled and baked (Ref. 9988).

Amphihaline 种 (参考文献 51442), 回游到深度藻海 产卵.(参考文献 172,51442) 产卵发生于在藻海 的冬季末与春天.(参考文献 35112) 狭首型幼鱼仔鱼在 7 到 11个月内被带欧洲的到海岸藉由墨西哥湾流时间 (参考文献 51442) 而且能持续超过 3 年。 (参考文献 8994) 他们被转换成鳗苗, 进入河口而且移殖至大陆的水域.(参考文献 51442) 他们在迁进之前发育成小的鳗鱼淡水流域。 (参考文献 11941) 幼鳗度过他们的成长期在淡水中, 雄性6-12 年以來, 雌性 9-20 年, 在結束他們的銳變之前.(參考文獻 172,51442) 在他們的成長時期結束的時候,他們性成熟了,而且鰻魚迴游到海洋在那裡它們被棲息於的深水域。 成魚不進食在迴游到海洋的時候。 完全地形成配子在朝向藻海 迴游的時候。 它發生於溫度範圍從 0-30個 ° C. 在它所有的階段中是一個個人主義者。 鰻苗與幼鰻的 '魚群' 在河口那是時常觀察,而且河活躍的集合是對向外的環境一個大規模的回應而不是。 它的食物事實上包括整個的水生出現在鰻魚的區域的動物相 (淡水以及海洋), 增大的具有動物離開水面, 例如蠕蟲.(參考文獻 172) 在年約 6-30 年,鰻魚開始歷經一個顯著的數列改變, 頭部變成尖, 背部表皮變黑, 當那在腹面上變成有銀色光澤的時候,眼被增大。 使鰻魚性成熟的最好溫度是 20-25個 ° C 。 (參考文獻 35388) 最近的染色體基因組研究顯示歐洲的鰻魚展現距離的隔離, 暗示那個非隨機交配與來自不同的地點的在鰻魚之中的被限制的基因流動存在.(參考文獻 43723) 生鮮使用, 乾燥或鹽醃, 煙燻與冷凍的; 能被油炸, 煮沸而且燒烤。 (參考文獻 9988) 明顯的為所有的大陸分布區域分枝漸減。 次級保育類動物.(參考文獻 40476)在泥或裂隙中,他們生活在底部上,在石頭下面。

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Catadromous species. When sexual maturity is reached they leave the river. Spawning migrations occur mainly during the second half of the year but have been observed year-round, usually commencing during dark nights (Ref. 172). Maturity is obtained during the spawning migration (Ref. 88171). Actual spawning has never been observed but is believed to occur solely in the Sargasso Sea between March and June (Ref. 89144). After spawning (at 600 m depth) adults die. Sigmund Freud described the testicles of eel (Ref. 72449).大西洋: 來自斯堪的那維亞半島到摩洛哥與北大西洋,波羅的海與地中海的河的大西洋的海岸.(參考文獻 172, 參考文獻 51442) 對亞洲與南方與中美洲的連續介紹, 但是不再製造。 在大西洋西部 (藻海 ) 中產卵區域。 也分佈沿著歐洲從黑海到白海的海岸。 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。 最近的染色體基因組研究顯示歐洲的鰻魚展現距離的隔離, 暗示那個非隨機交配與來自不同的地點的在鰻魚之中的被限制的基因流動存在.(參考文獻 43723)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Deelder, C.L., 1984. Synopsis of biological data on the eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758). FAO Fish. Synop. (80, Rev. 1):73 p. (Ref. 172)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 126983)

  极度濒危 (CR) (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 07 November 2018





渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO - 养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: landings, 物种外形; Publication: search | FIRMS - Stock assessments | FishSource | 周边海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 3 - 14.5, mean 7.9 °C (based on 1203 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00095 (0.00084 - 0.00108), b=3.17 (3.13 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 8.7 (7.5 - 12.6) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 26 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.1; tm=6-30; tmax=23).
Prior r = 0.20, 95% CL = 0.13 - 0.30, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100).
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 18.9 [11.6, 32.9] mg/100g; Iron = 0.267 [0.167, 0.425] mg/100g; Protein = 19 [17, 21] %; Omega3 = 0.664 [0.388, 1.169] g/100g; Selenium = 27.5 [14.5, 50.8] μg/100g; VitaminA = 10.3 [2.3, 48.5] μg/100g; Zinc = 0.507 [0.371, 0.705] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.