Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 3 - 20 m. Temperate; 47°N - 38°N, 12°E - 42°E
Mediterranean Sea: southern Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea. Also known from the Black Sea and Sea of Azov.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Dawson, C.E., 1986. Syngnathidae. p. 628-639. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 2. Unesco, Paris. (Ref. 6733)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 13.76 - 18.873, mean 15.27 °C (based on 119 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00028 (0.00012 - 0.00063), b=3.21 (3.03 - 3.39), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 78.1 [41.1, 150.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.428 [0.267, 0.723] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.7 [16.7, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.574 [0.332, 1.016] g/100g ; Selenium = 16.9 [8.1, 34.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.6 [9.3, 81.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.698 [0.484, 1.007] mg/100g (wet weight);