Mobula birostris, Giant manta : fisheries
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Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792)

Giant manta
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Mobula birostris   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Mobula birostris (Giant manta)
Mobula birostris
Picture by Marshall, A.

Классификация / Names народные названия | синонимы | Catalog of Fishes(род, виды) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Пластиножаберные (акулы и скаты) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Mobulidae (Devilrays)
Etymology: More on author: Walbaum.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range экология

морской ассоциированный с рифами; мигрирует в океане (Ref. 51243); пределы глубины 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 106604). Subtropical; 42°N - 38°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55255)

распространение страны | регионы FAO | Ecosystems | места находок | Point map | интродукции | Faunafri

Circumglobal, tropical to temperate: in the Northern Hemisphere, as far north as southern California and Rhode Island on the United States west and east coasts, Mutsu Bay, Aomori, Japan, the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt and the Azores Islands; in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as Peru, Uruguay, South Africa and New Zealand. In some locations, including Mozambique, it is sympatric with Manta alfredi.

Length at first maturity / Size / Вес / Возраст

Maturity: Lm 422.0, range 380 - 460 cm
Max length : 910 cm WD самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 58048); common length : 450 cm WD самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 3176); наибольший вес (опубликованные данные): 3.0 t (Ref. 5377); наибольший возраст (опубликованны данные): 20 годы (Ref. 31742)

Краткое описание морфология | морфометрия

A giant ray having an extremely broad head with long head fins, and a terminal mouth; upper surface of disc covered with denticles, and tail usually without a spine (Ref. 5578). Blackish above, sometimes with white shoulder patches; white below, with grey edging on disc (Ref. 5578). Tail whiplike but short (Ref. 7251).

биология     глоссарий (например epibenthic)

Mainly in near-shore waters, near coral and rocky reefs; sometimes found over deep water (Ref. 12951). Reported along productive coastlines with regular upwelling, oceanic island groups and offshore pinnacles and seamounts (Ref. 82755). Penetrates shallow muddy bays and the intertidal and occurs off river mouths (Ref. 9911). Pelagic (Ref. 58302). Occurs singly or in loose aggregations (Ref. 12951). Mainly plankton feeders, but may feed on small and moderate-sized fishes as well (Ref. 9911). Leaps out the water mainly in spring and autumn, possibly as part of mating behavior (Ref. 31742). Easily approached (Ref. 9911). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 6902). Commonly caught by tuna gillnet and harpoon fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (very high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048). Liver yields oil and skin used as abrasive (Ref. 6902). World's largest ray (Ref. 37816).

Life cycle and mating behavior половая зрелость | размножение | нерест | икра | Fecundity | личинки

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Bears up to 2 young (Ref. 5578); born at 122-127 cm WD (Ref.58048). A female of 550 cm width and weighing 1050 kg was collected in the Galapagos in June and was carrying a well-developed embryo of 12.7 kg (Ref. 28023). Size at partuition might be from 1.1 to 1.3 m and from 9.1 to 1.14 kg (Ref. 31742). Yano et al (1999) (Ref. 35892) describe the mating behavior of manta rays based on observations off Ogasawara Islands, Japan, in the following sequence: 1) 'chasing', the male rapidly follows behind the tail of the female and attacks her several times; 2) 'nipping', the male nips the tip of the pectoral fin of the female and then moves to the ventral surface of the female; 3) 'copulating', the male inserts a clasper into the cloacaof the female and copulates abdomen-to-abdomen, up to 123 seconds; 4) 'post-copulating'; 5) 'separating'. (Ref. 49562).

Основная ссылка Upload your references | ссылки | координатор | соавторы

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

Статус Красного Списка МСОП (Ref. 126983)

  Под угрозой исчезновения (EN) (A2bcd+3d); Date assessed: 12 November 2019


Угроза для людей

  Harmless (Ref. 9911)

Использование человеком

рыболовство: не имеет хозяйственного значения
FAO - Publication: search | FishSource | Sea Around Us

дополнительная информация

регионы FAO
места находок
пищевые объекты
потребление пищи
народные названия
обмен веществ
половая зрелость
Spawning aggregation
Развитие икры
Зависимость между длиной и массой тела
Зависимость между длинами
Размерный состав
динамика численности личинок
аквакультура (рыбоводство)
особенности рыбоводства
степень растяжения
частоты аллелей
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201): 22.8 - 29, mean 27.6 °C (based on 3220 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 7.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
устойчивость к внешним воздействиям (Ref. 120179):  очень низкий, минимальное время удвоения популяции более 14 лет (tm=6; tmax>20; Fec=1).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (64 of 100).
Категория цены (Ref. 80766):   Medium.
Nutrients (Ref. 124155):  Calcium = 2.4 [0.4, 10.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.339 [0.080, 0.946] mg/100g ; Protein = 23 [18, 28] % ; Omega3 = 0.1 [0.0, 0.4] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.2 [7.4, 97.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.6 [3.1, 37.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.305 [0.144, 0.613] mg/100g (wet weight);