Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 40 - 80 m (Ref. 33839). Temperate
Eastern Indian Ocean: Australia (South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9563)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 54 - 58. Body deep (46-50% SL). Snout extended into a hook-like process projecting downwards in front of small, oblique mouth. Scales very small, rather firmly attached; mostly ctenoid on ocular side, mostly cycloid on blind side. Pelvic fin rays on right side 9-10, left 6. Caudal fin rays 14 (Ref. 33839).
Found inshore off beaches and on the continental shelf (Ref. 9563).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell, 1986. Trawl fish from temperate waters of Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research, Tasmania. 492 p. (Ref. 9563)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 14.5 - 25.5, mean 17.4 °C (based on 56 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.00797 - 0.04156), b=2.97 (2.76 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100).