Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
Biển; Thuộc về nước lợ gần đáy; Ở đại duơng, biển (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 0 - 100 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 20 m (Ref. 1371). Temperate; 68°N - 44°N, 11°W - 13°E
Northeast Atlantic: Trondheim on the Norwegian coast to the Bay of Biscay; also around the British Isles.
Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 1371); common length : 20.0 cm TL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 4645)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 0; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 0. Head depressed. First dorsal fin poorly developed, with only three short rays. Color uniformly dark brown or bluish brown; the lips and the distal areas of all fins paler except for the pectorals.
Lives in coastal waters at shallow depths, generally from 10-20 m, more seldom from 75-100 m, on rocky bottom with seaweeds. Solitary and secretive, undertakes only limited local movements. Spawns from May to September at 50-70 m depth near the shore throughout its entire range. Feeds on sea stars, crustaceans, worms, mollusks and small fish (Ref. 1371).
Oviparous, sexes are separate (Ref. 205).
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: không ích lợi (thú vị); Bể nuôi cá: Bể cá công cộng
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Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 8.5 - 12.5, mean 10.4 °C (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00410 - 0.02802), b=3.06 (2.83 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.56 se; based on food items.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 28.6 [14.3, 51.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.331 [0.207, 0.536] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [17.1, 19.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.565 [0.290, 1.051] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.7 [7.3, 26.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.4 [3.7, 28.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.565 [0.427, 0.763] mg/100g (wet weight);