Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical
Indo-Pacific: including the northern China Sea, Gulf of Thailand, the Philippines and southward to Indonesia, but apparently not to New Guinea and Australia; westward to Pakistan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9893); common length : 8.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9893)
Inhabits shallow sand and mud bottoms in coastal waters. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates, especially crustaceans. Marketed fresh, frozen, and dried-salted (Ref. 9893).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Menon, A.G.K., 1984. Soleidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 4. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3505)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 25.1 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1008 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00591 - 0.02130), b=3.11 (2.95 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.44 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).