Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate
Northwest Pacific: Japan and Korea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 26 - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 40637)
Inhabit rocky shore areas. Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Feed on crabs and fishes (Ref. 9137). Viviparous (Ref. 34817).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.9 - 20.4, mean 14.5 °C (based on 62 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00889 - 0.02142), b=3.04 (2.91 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec=12,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .