Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - 119 m (Ref. 2850), usually ? - 70 m (Ref. 2850). Subtropical; 37°N - 26°N, 123°W - 112°W
Eastern Central Pacific: Point Pinos, Monterey County in central California, USA to southern central Baja California, Mexico.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); max. published weight: 570.00 g (Ref. 40637)
Occur on or near bottom, usually shallower than 70 m (Ref. 2850). Viviparous (Ref. 34817).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Boston (MA, USA): Houghton Mifflin Company. xii+336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 10 - 14.8, mean 11.3 °C (based on 6 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00479 - 0.02087), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .