Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - 120 m (Ref. 56557), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Northwest Pacific: Iwate Prefecture and Hokkaido to the Primorskii Krai (Ref. 559). Reported from South Korea (Ref. 77001).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 11 - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56557)
Occur near the coast. May enter estuaries and brackish water. Juveniles associate with drifting seaweed (Ref. 12114, 12115). Viviparous (Ref. 34817).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.6 - 15.8, mean 6.5 °C (based on 64 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00788 - 0.02308), b=3.06 (2.91 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 4.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.25; tm=3; Fec=8,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .